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डॉ. शैलेश शुक्ला

सुप्रसिद्ध कवि, न्यू मीडिया विशेषज्ञ एवं प्रधान संपादक, सृजन ऑस्ट्रेलिया

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डॉ. शैलेश शुक्ला

सुप्रसिद्ध कवि, न्यू मीडिया विशेषज्ञ एवं
प्रधान संपादक, सृजन ऑस्ट्रेलिया

श्रीमती पूनम चतुर्वेदी शुक्ला

सुप्रसिद्ध चित्रकार, समाजसेवी एवं
मुख्य संपादक, सृजन ऑस्ट्रेलिया

Translation: Its Nature, Role and Scope in 21st Century

ABSTRACT:

 

 Translation is an interesting as well as a challenging job. It became highly skilful action and also a profession in the Twenty-first century. It is an intercultural activity through languages. It brings languages and culture together. In this paper, I intend to explore the nature and scope of translation in the globalized world. How translators play a pivotal role to build a bridge between two different ethos, languages and traditions. In twenty first century Translation has fascinated various scholars and translators all over the world. With each generation the scope of translation is widening. This paper provides a panorama of various perspectives in which translation is becoming crucial for us and for interdisciplinary studies. The importance and significance of translation in our daily life is wide-ranging and Multidimensional.

 

 Keywords: translation, language, scope, role, nature, literature, culture of translation.

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Introduction:

Translation has helped knit India together as a nation throughout her history. It brings languages closer to one another and introduces to one another diverse modes of imagination and perception and various regional cultures and communities together. Ideas and concepts like ‘Indian literature’, ‘Indian philosophy’ ‘Indian customs’ and ‘Indian knowledge systems’ would have been impossible in the absence of translations with their natural integrationist mission. It is only because of translation we know about all the developments in communication and technology and keep abreast of the latest discoveries in the various fields of knowledge, and through translation also have access to the literature of numerous languages and to the different actions happening in the world.

What is Translation?

In general, without losing the message of the original translation turns a text of source language (SL) into an exact and comprehensible version of target language (TL). Translating is not just merely looking up a few words in a dictionary. Thorough knowledge of both the source language and the target language is required for quality translation. Many people think that being bilingual is all that is needed to be a translator but that’s not true. There is no doubt that being bilingual is an essential prerequisite, but translation skills are built and developed on the basis of one’s own long drawn-out communicative and writing experiences in both the languages. To tell the truth, translation is a course of action which based on the theory of extract the meaning of a manuscript from its present form and reproduces that with different form of a second language.

Usually, it is recommended that translators should meet up three requirements, to be precise: 1) Acquaintance with the source language, 2) Knowledge with the target language, and 3) Awareness with the subject matter to perform the job successfully. Based on this notion, the translator discovers the meaning in the wake of the forms in the source language (SL) and does his finest to imitate the similar meaning in the target language (TL) by using the TL structures and forms to the paramount of his knowledge. Naturally and supposedly what changes is the form and the code and what should remain unchanged is the meaning and the message (Larson, 1984).Therefore, one may distinguish the most common definition of translation, i.e., the assortment of the close corresponding for a language unit in the SL in a target language.

Role of Translation:

There is no doubt that translation plays vital role tin acknowledging the customs and also promotes the escalation of native literature and knowledge by bringing into our languages the great wealth of other literatures and cultures. We enhance our own literatures by translating masterpieces from other Indian languages as well as from foreign ones. From it we raise our writing standards: this happens particularly when we translate the works of the greatest masters ever of world literature like Homer, Dante, Shakespeare, Plato, Aristotle, Vyasa, Valmiki, Kalidasa and more contemporary writers from Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, Kafka, Beckett, Eliot and Thomas Mann to Gabriel Marquez, J. M. Coetzee, Pablo Neruda and others. These translations created new movements and trends.

Translation plays a very crucial role in extending the scope of language and also in reframing the boundaries. Everyday new coinages and terms necessitated by translation produce new vocabulary and contribute to larger extent. One thus learns not only to comprehend foreign literature, science and philosophy throughout the mother-tongue, but also to converse about modern knowledge, from quantum physics to nano-technology and computer-science to molecular biology in the local language.

Translation plays another role in strengthening democratic system by establishing equality amongst different languages and inquiring, questioning the supremacy of some over the others as it proves that all thoughts and experiences can be articulated in all languages and in spite of their uniqueness they are transferable. It also makes able the poor sections/ downtrodden of the society to be heard as they can speak in their own dialects or languages and then get translated into other languages which are more broadly spoken and understood. Thus translation contributes to the empowerment of the marginalized or depressed sections like the dalits, tribals, minorities, poor, women, the disabled and others.

Translation helps exchange blows colonial prejudices. An example of this is that by doing the work of translation of Indian literature and knowledge into English; we have proved to the world that in no way the colonizer is superior to us as we too have a long history of great writing as well as of research. The British had translated from India only what suited to their taste; but now the realm is writing back and telling them that to understand our peoples and cultures what they have to read. And now there is a change in their old ‘orientalist’ conceptions of India.

Translation helps to get acquainted with the computer knowledge. As in Marathi language Acchyut Godbole translated computer books and these books are very useful to students as well as for computer learners. Another example is of Sudha Murthy. She has also translated computer books to school children in Kannada Language. By reading these books students are learning how to do programming of computers.

Qualities of a good Translator

 

A good translator should have ample knowledge of the SL (source language) from which he is translating into the TL which is generally his mother tongue/target language. In order to make precise translation of the SL text he ought to have command over the grammatical, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic features of the SL. In addition to this it is indispensable that he is well-conversant with the socio-cultural contexts of both the SL and the TL. A good translator should be the author’s mouthpiece in a way that he knows and comprehends fully whatever the original author has said in his text. One of the commonly conventional characteristics of a good translation is that it should be similar to the original text or come as close to the SL text as likely. Within the usual social and cultural settings it should appear like the original in the TL translation and with some minor accommodation, if necessary.

 

A good translator is required to have sufficient knowledge of the subject or area to which the SL text relates so that the translator is able to capture the spirit of the SL text. If he does not have thoroughly acquaintance, he will not be able to make a precise translation appropriate for its proposed purpose. For example, if you want to translate the Koran or the Guru Granth Sahib or any other religious text, you must have proper knowledge of those sacred, religious and theological works. A good translator should be careful while making the choices in using the TL. He should translate in the proper style, which is apt for the target audience. It should appear to be natural and spur-of-the-moment to the TL readers. The translation in the TL should not sound strange.

 

A translator could do with certain apparatus to help him out in situations of complicatedness. These apparatus should be in the form of good quality monolingual and bilingual dictionaries, e-dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries of technical and standard works, encyclopedias, etc. pertaining to the SL text. A good translator while translating any text should have endurance and should not be in haste to run through. He should not hesitate or shy in discussing with others the difficulties that he may face while translating. Moreover, in order to arrive at right and appropriate equivalents he should not shy away from conducting micro-research.

 

In short, a good translator should be a proficient, skillful and competent bilingual, familiar with the subject matter/area of the SL text that chosen for translation. He should never try to put in his personal thoughts or individual impressions in the TL text. His intention should be to express the context, content and the purpose of the SL text as faithfully as possible into the TL text. The job of a translator is very worthwhile and academically and intellectually inspiring.

Scope of Translation:

Nowadays to translate one language into another computers are already being used, but humans are still involved in the process either through pre-writing or post-editing. There is no way that a computer can ever be able to translate languages as the way humans could have been doing.  As the language uses metaphor, imagery, symbols to convey a particular meaning, computers will not be able to translate it. We are living in an age of translations and the avenues for translators are continuously increasing. Some of scope of translation in these areas and vocations are indicated below:

Literary translation:  There are many institutions here in India and abroad which are devoted to literary translation.  Translating Indian literature into foreign languages, foreign literature into Indian languages, and Indian literature in one language into other Indian languages are all productive activities in every sense. National Book Trust, Sahitya Akademi, regional literary associations and various publishing houses both in English and other languages are in the search of capable translators. There is a new curiosity abroad in Indian literature as the young non-resident Indians (NRI) who does not know their languages are enthusiastic to read their literatures in translation in the languages they know and wants to be familiar with traditions, culture. The foreign readers are also eager to know what is contributed all over the world from Berlin to Jaipur  and book fairs like the ones held annually at Frankfurt, Paris, London, Bologna, Abu Dhabi  etc.

Literary Translation plays the vital and pivotal role of in Literature is because the importance and essence of classic works can be reached to a number of readers by means of translation only. Recently the Government of India by launching a new mission, Indian Literature Abroad (ILA) responded to the new interest. Big Indian publishing houses such as Penguin, Harper-Collins, Oxford University Press, Macmillan, Orient Longman etc as well as smaller houses are enriching translations of literary and discursive works in a big way.

Knowledge Translation: In order to lift up the standard of education done in mother tongues and to provide easily reached up to date and cutting-edge knowledge so far available only in English to the rural poor and the backward sections of the society The National Translation Mission aspires to translate classical works and textbooks in areas like medicine, chemistry, physics, sociology, linguistics, history, geography, geology, mathematics and political science into the Indian languages. The Commission is in search of virtuoso translators from English into all the Indian languages.

Media Translation: The print, television, radio, electronic, cinema visual and auditory media- newspapers, magazines, etc necessitate bounty of translators from one language into another. Many media houses at the same time publish papers and journals or run television channels in several languages and they require swift so far communicative translations of news, serials, film scripts and programmes. Dubbing movie, short film and subtitling movie, serials, short films are other areas.

Conclusion:

 

Translation has come a long way from sheer imitation of the original to a composite act of reading and writing simultaneously. In recent years it has developed as a discipline. The use of translations is precious in the study of social and cultural environment in multilingual country like India trying to grasp with Global ethos. All over the world it has verified as a most important factor for development of culture. As a discipline in twenty –first century it has fascinated scholars and translators all over the world. In spite of all the tribulations that make threats the legitimacy of translation and its quality one observes translators has shown upward trend. In the midst of all the problem, translations continues to be rendered, is incredible to be pleased about. To be frank, it is the evils that create the art of translation challenging and at last enthralling. The condition right now is every Indian publisher’s lists are growing and their profits are attractive enough to keep the business rolling. To conclude I would say that in the second half of the twentieth century, worldwide translations are taken seriously – as an art, a craft and above all as requisite. Day by day the scope of translation is widening vastly with each generation. New Translation theories of literature are getting modified. With revolutionary changes in means of communication, translational theories are positively and rapidly responding to changed circumstances. And further now electronic devices are taking up the issues with appropriate share in both hardware and software of Translation Study.

Works Cited

  1. Bassnett, Susan And Trivedi Harish ed. Post- Colonial Translation 1999, New York, Routledge Print.

  2. M. 1984 Meaning-Based Translation: A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence. New York. Univeristy Press of America

  3. Eugene and Taber ed. The Theory and Practice of Translation

  4. Mohit K. ed. Studies in Translation 2008, New Delhi, Atlantic print.

  5. Bell, R.T. (1991): Translation and Translating, London: Longman.

  6. https://www.customwritings.com/blog/sample-essays/the-nature-of-translation.html

  7. http://www.languagerealm.com/articles/history-of-translation.php

  8. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Translation_studies

  9. https://www.The+Theory+and+Practice+of+Translation&ots.

  10. https://www.academia.edu/Documents/in/Translation_criticism

Last Updated on March 8, 2021 by srijanaustralia

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